Culture (in the Czech Republic, USA and United Kingdom)

The Czech Republic:
Bedřich Smetana was a famous composer. He was born in Litomyšl and lived in 19th century (1824 – 1884) and wrote many operas. His opera Libuše was a first performance (in 1881) that was played in the National Theater. His other operas are for example The Bartered Bride (Prodaná nevěsta), Two Widows (Dvě vdovy) and The Secret. He didn’t write only operas so his other works are for example The Czech Dances and From My Life. His music was based on Czech folk music. He turned deaf at the end of his life.
Antonín Dvořák lived in 19th century (1841 – 1904) and was born in Nelahozeves over Vltava. The Moravian Double-song (Moravské dvojzpěvy) and The Slavonic Dances (Slovanské tance) brought him a success and he became very quickly glorious. His famous operas are The Water Nymph (Rusalka) and The Devil and Katherine (Čert a Káča). He went to America and there he became a director of National Conservatoire in New York. He wrote the symphony From the New World.
The United Kingdom:
Benjamin Britten was an English composer and pianist. He lived in 20th century (1913 – 1976). He began to compose at the age of 5 like an infant prodigy (zázračné dítě). He studied at Royal College of Music. He started to be a composer in 1934. Symphonieta was one of his first works. He needed money that is why he wrote incidental music for films. His other works are Variations on Theme of Frank Bridge, War Requiem (It was composed on verses Wilfred Owen.), Les Illuminations (Song cycle that was composed on prose by Arthur Rimbaud. It was wrote in Canada) and Peter Grimes (It was a first opera and composed in England.) Later his operas were based on William Shakespeare’s comedies. Benjamin Britten got Order of Merit - for music (řád zásluhy za hudbu).
The Beatles was a beat group. It has influence on all the next music generations. This group came to existence in 1960 in Liverpool. Its members were John Lennon, George Harrison, Paul McCartney and Ringo Starr. They stopped playing in 1970.
The United States of America:
Louis Armstrong was an American singer and trumpet player. He was a leader of a orchestra. He played with groups: Hot Five, Hot Seven and All Stars.
George Gershwin was an American and lived in 20th century (1898 – 1937). His music was based on typical American folk music and jazz. His first success was a song The Swanee. His most famous songs are Do It Again, The Man I Love, Liza, Somebody Loves Me, Soon and I got Rhythm. He wrote musicals, for example Rosalie and The Gold Girl (Zlaté děvče). He wrote comedy I Sing About You that was very successful. He traveled to Europe and he composed the symphony The American in Paris. His most famous work is Porgy and Bess that was different from other operas this age. It was the folk opera. George Gerschwin made up the folk opera. There you can find jazz elements. Jazz was typical for this age.

The Czech Republic:
Alfons Mucha lived in the end of 90th century to beginning of 20th century (1860 – 1939). He was a painter, graphic artist and designer. He worked in the USA and Paris. There he had his own paint school in Paris. He is a representative of secession. He was well - known in France because of his portraits of Sara Bernhard who was a famous actress.
The United Kingdom:
John Constable
William Hoghart
The United States of America:
Andy Warhol was an American painter and a creator of underground films. He is a representative of pop – art. His family came from Slovakia.

The Czech Republic:
Ladislav Šaloun has his sculptures in our town Hořice. His statues are for example Jan Hus and Krakonoš.

The United Kingdom:
Henry Moore was an English and lived in 20th century (1898 – 1986). His famous sculptures were Reclining Figures (It was inspired the Battle of England when the people were in the underground.) and Mother With Children. He inspired in primitive sculptures of Africa too.

The United States of America:
David Smith

The Czech Republic:
Josef Zítek designed the National Theater.
The United Kingdom:
Sir Christopher Wren built St. Paul’s Cathedral. He was buried there and his epitaph says: “Reader, if you seek a monument, look about you.”
The United States of America:
James Hoban came from Ireland to the USA where he lived. He designed The White House.

The Czech Republic:
Miloš Forman was born in 1932 and since 1968 he lives and works in the USA. He is a stage – manager (director, režisér). His films are One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest and Amadeus. Both of these films got the Oscars, Amadeus in 1985.

The United Kingdom:
David Lean lived in 20th century (1908 – 1991). He was a British stage – manager. His films are The Bridge Above River Kwai, Big Illusions, Olivier Twist and Doctor Živago.
The United States of America:
Charles Chaplin lived in the end of 19th century to 20th century (1889 – 1977). He was British actor, but he lived in the USA. He started to play in the theater, later he became a film – star. He played mostly in the dumb films (němé filmy). He played in films The Kid, The Great Dictator, The Modern Period and so on.

The Czech Republic:
Josef Kajetán Tyl wrote for example Lantern (Lucerna) and Strakonice’s Bag – piper (Strakonický dudák).
Jiří Voskovec
Jan Werich
Jaroslav Ježek
The United Kingdom:
William Shakespeare lived in 16th century (1564 – 1616). He was born at Stratford – upon – Avon. He was English dramatist and poet. His well – known plays are for example Othello, Hamlet. Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, Macbeth and so on.
George Bernard Shaw was a world famous dramatist. He lived in the end of 19th century to 20th century (1856 – 1950). His most famous play is Pygmalion which became world known in its film musical version under the title My Fair Lady.
Samuel Beckett was born in 1906. He wrote a drama Waiting for Godot.
The United States of America:
Tennessee Williams lived in 20th century (1914 – 1983). He wrote plays Cat on a Hot Tin Roof.
Edward Albee was born in 1928. His plays are The American Dream and Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf.

Literature - fiction:
The Czech Republic:
Milan Kundera
Jaroslav Hašek
Karel Čapek
The United Kingdom:
Jonathan Swift lived in the end of 17th century to 18th century (1667 – 1745). He wrote satirical novel Gulliver’s Travel.
Charles Dickens lived in 19th century (1812 – 1870). He is a representative of realism. He wrote David Copperfield, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, Oliver Twist and Little Dorrit.
The United States of America:
Mark Twain lived in 19th century (1835 – 1910). He wrote Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn and The Prince and the Pauper.
John Steinbeck lived in 20th century (1902 – 1968). He wrote a novel The Grapes of Wrath.
Ernest Hemingway lived in the end of 19th century to 20th century (1899 – 1961). He wrote the novelette The Old Man and the Sea, novels A Farewell to Arms and For Whom the Bell Tolls (from the Spanish civil war).

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