The first people on the American continent were prehistoric hunters, who crossed a now-submerged Bering Strait.They came from Asia and it was about 35000 years ago.
They spread through the American continent and settled also the territory of today’s US.
At first , they were living from hunting and gathering , but since 8th millenium BC
They started to grow potatoes in the Rocky mountains,legumes , corn and maniok in Mexico and California.First known culture was Adenian(?),which appeared in Northern America before 3000 years. They builded underground buildings. On it continued Hopewellian(?) culture, which arised in the lowland of river Ohio about 100 BC. From year 700 we have information about Hohokamian(?) culture, which came into being in territory of Arizona.We know, that they could build irrigation canals.In Northern America lived about 40 million of Indians.
Most of the people think, that America have been discovered first by Christopher Columbus, but the first european saiors, who reached coasts of America were Vikings. They put to sea under the leadership of Leif Eriksson from Greenland and landed in Vinland (today’s massachussetts).Vikings established a few colonies on the East coast, but soon they have been pushed out by huge predominance of native inhabitants.
On the 12th October 1492 Christopher Columbus, sent by Spanish king Ferdinand with 3 ships to find new, better and shorter way to India, reached the Bahama Islands. It started the new era of human history, which helped many european countries, but represented destruction for majority of native people and their culture, art and lifestyle. Since 1492 America served exclusively as a colonial land, at the 1st time mainly for Spain which settled Florida, Texas, Mexico, California and islands in Gulf of Mexico. France held the Lousianna territory in the middle of the land, but there were also Duthch who established New Amsterdam in 1626 and Swedish with Fort Christina. The most important among these nations were English, who settled east coast of today’s Us, their first colony was Jamestown.The stream of colonists increased after Henry VIII. Performed his reformation of the Church in 1534.In 1619 first black slaves were delivered from africa and in 1636 was founded Harvard and Yale university. Since the 2nd half of 17th century England began to dominate as a colonial superpower. But with the economic increase of the colonies, British parilament (where colonies had no actual representation) started to exploit the colonies by several acts, which remarkably influenced trade and life. Tough stand of English government forced colonists to make revolution.
The struggle for independence had been started by 2 important events-by Boston massacre,when british redcoats fired into the crowd of glumblers and the Boston tea party on 16th december 1773, when 10000 pounds worth of tea was dumped into the sea by citizens dressed up as an indians. During the war for independence British had a big army in America and moreover they cooperated with many of indian tribes. Overagainst the Americans, led by great strategist george Washington were supported by some of the european powers (rivals of England). Finally,after the battle of Yorktown in 1781 they forced British to surrender. On July 1776 was signed Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson, which officially denied colonial obligation to England. Concession of the British land had been granted by treaty of paris 1783, constitution was ratified in 1788, 1st president was George Washington.
Variances between industrial North and agricultural South leaded to American civil war in the years 1861-1865. In 1863 president Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation-slaves became free, but remained separated from whites. In the second half of 19th century the imigration from Europe had dramatically increased, what provoked the anticatholic and antijewish feelings. During The 1st world war America stood as a neutral country, but when German submarines sank several American ships, it wasn´t longer possible to stay by side. On April 1917 America declared war on the central powers and helped Allies to win the war. The president Wilson designed 14 points determined for negotiations in Paris. In the 20’s the America was enjoying of the economic increase, which ended in 1929 by the worldwide crisis.
In the 2nd world war the United States joined Allies once again after the ambush of Pearl Harbour. By the end of the war the US helped to recover the whole western Europe.
The cold war against Soviet Union began because it posed a possible threat to the US by its possession of the atomic bomb and by dominating of Eastern Europe. The biggest danger of nuclear war was in 1962 when Soviet Union installed nuclear weapons on Cuba. President Kennedy responsed with a naval blockade. Finally Chruscev agreed to send the missiles back in exchange for the American promise never to attack Cuba.
Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas 1963.
During the 2nd half of 20th centuryAmerica was pulled into several wars (for example Korean and Vietnam war).
The 80th were in sign of accepting reforms in Soviet Union which ended in 1989 by the fall of communism in the Eastern Europe.
George Bush, the father of today‘s American president, had to deal with Iraqi ocupation Of Kuwait, what led to the operation Desert Storm in 1991. After him Bill Clinton was twice elected and in 2001 he was replaced by George W. Bush, representative of republican party.
10. červenec 2007