Packing and marking are matters of great importance especially in overseas trade where goods are exposed to greater risks than in land or air transport. these risks may be e. g. penetration of seawater, transhipment, rough handling etc. Therefore goods sent overseas have to be provided with seaworthy packing.
The packing must be appropriate to the type of goods to be carried. The packing instructions of the customer must be carefully served (kept to).
Most goods are packed in cases or chests. Vegetables and fruit are sent in baskets or crates: flour in sacks, cotton and wool in bales, coffee and rice in bags. Bottled liquid e. g. wine or spirits are sent in boxes or cases lined with woodwool or straw. Wine is often transported in jars. Tea is carried in zinc – lined chests. Other liquids mainly oil are sent in drums, tanks, barrels or in bottles. Large quantities of butter are sent in tubs. Coal, ore, sand and timber are usually carried in open trucks.
to avoid confusion, delay and miscarriage the individual cases must be clearly marked and numbered. The marking usually consists of the name of destination and the initials of person or firm to whom the goods are sent.
Sometimes additional marks are put on the cases especially when the goods require special care in handling. Some of these marks are: Fragile (křehký), this side up, Top, Bottom, with care, Keep in dry, Highly inflammable (hořlavý).
At present many kinds of plastic are used in transportation. They are very useful for transporting frozen foodstuffs. e. g. flan, fruit vegetables, poultry, daily products etc. The main advantage of plastics is that they are cheap, light and waterproof.