During the 15th century , the European nations – Spains and Portugals began series of explorations. They wanted to find trade rotes to the Far East, but accidental in 1492 Christopher Columbus found a land in the western hemisphere. It was later called America after one explorer. The Europeans called it the New World. The New World contained all the natural wealth. Here were great deposits of the gold, of minerals and fertile farmlands. The origin people were American Indians. They lived by hunting, fishing and had domesticated many valuable plants like corn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash and peanuts.
In 1607 the English collony in North America was founded in Jamestown. During the century before the English arrived in Virginia, the Spanish were already setting up colonies in Florida. The Netherlands founded a colony called New Amsterdam in 1624. But in 1664 the English superseded the Netherlands and they called it New York. New England’s coast was settled by the Pilgrims and the Puritans in the 17th century. The Pilgrims established Plymouth in 1620.
Finally were there thirteen collonies. In 1619 the first ship with african negros incame in Virginia. There was expansion of slavery. In Virginia were in the year 1700 sixteen thousand slaves, in 1760 were there 140,000 slaves. In fact almost one half of Virginia’s population in 1760 was black. In 1754 appered there the first idea of unification by Benjamin Franklin. There was the domination of England. There were very high excises on the goods. So the colonian people made a revolt. In 1773 was the Boston tea party. The colonian people thrown the boxes of tea into sea. And in 1775 began the war for independence of United States of America. The colonies won it’s independence after several batles and the British domination has ended. The first president became George Washington.
In 1800’s could be United States divided to North and South. The northern half of the country were developing factories, heavy industries and textile mills. The southern half of the country was mainly an agricultural region. Their farms were dependent on the labor of black slaves from Africa. The slaves lived in poor huts and were often cruelly beaten if they didn’t work hard enough. People from the north didn’t approve of slavery. They thought it was wrong to own people and make them work for nothing. I the north, politicians began talking out against slavery in the congress. The south defended their right to keep slaves. They wanted to leave the Union and start a separate republic. When Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, seven states in the south announced, that they would secede from the Union. The American Civil War broke out soon after Abraham Lincoln was elected. The industrialized north couldn’t tolerate slavery in the coutry. The seven states in the south seceded from the Union and formed a new republic called The Confederate States of America. The Civil War was terrible prospect for a new coutry but President Lincoln didn’t see any other choice. The most of conflicts was taking place in the South. The confederate soldiers thought that they had the advantage because they were defending their own territory and they were familiar with the landscape. The southern troops won the first battles of the war. The North made a complete naval blocade of all Southern ports to prevent their export of cotton and import from Europe. So the south was weakened. In 1863 made Lincoln the “Emancipation Proclamation,”which freed all slaves. In south it led to massive labor shortage as slaves ran away to join advancing union forces. And finally ended America’s bloodiest conflict which has never had analogies.
Abraham Lincoln was born in 1809 to poor farming family in Kentucky. The family lost it’s land and they moved to Indiana. Then his mother died. His stepmother let him to learn. He taught himself grammar and mathematics. In age 21, Lincoln moved to Illinois and there he worked as storekeeper. He entered politics as a candidate for the Illinois and then he decided to study law. He began his political career as a member of the Whig party. He got to the U.S. House of Representatives. He detested slavery as a moral wrong. Then he joined the Republican party and as he won the election for president, the civil war began. He heldthe Union together and he won. He gave freedom to slaves. With the war’s end was he killed by a fanatic in a theater.
30. srpen 2007