The USA is situated in the southern part of North America. Its neighbors are Canada in the north, Mexico in the south and Russia by Alaska. The largest rivers are the Mississippi and the Missouri. There are big variations of climate. Temperatures change from arctic cold in northern Alaska to subtropical warmth in Hawaii and the Gulf Coast States. There are many national parks in the USA, especially in the Rocky Mountains Region, where there are Rocky Mountain National Park, Yellowstone National Park and the Grand Tetons.
The USA population is about 250,000,000. Now there are about 80% Caucasian, 12% black, 1.5% Asian and Pacific Islanders and 0.6% American Indians and Eskimos. The main language spoken here is American English. American English differs from British English in vocabulary, pronunciation and spelling.
Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492. The first English colony was founded in Virginia at Jamestown in 1607. In 1620 the ship named Mayflower brought 102 English men, women and children. They were Puritans. They called themselves the Pilgrim Fathers. In October 1621 they celebrated a good harvest. They called this day Thanksgiving Day. During the 17th century many colonists, mostly British but also French, German, Dutch and Irish settled in the country, mainly along the eastern coast. In the 17th century about half a million Africans were brought as slaves.
Foundation of the USA, The War for Independence (1775 - 1783)
In 1775, at Lexington, the War began. On July 4th, 1776 they agreed on the Declaration of Independence written mainly by Thomas Jefferson. The War for Independence lasted until 1783 when Britain recognized the USA.
The main industrial items are manufacturing steel, car industry, electronics, machinery, clothing. The main agriculture products are corn, cotton, tobacco, fruit and vegetables. The USA is rich in coal, copper, gold, iron and oil.
The USA with the President as the head of state is a federation of 50 states with 48 on the continent, Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Mid Pacific. The USA is the member of all major international organizations: UN, NATO, OECD.
American Political System
The main body is called Congress - its seat is in the Capitol. The Congress is divided into two parts - the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives consists of 435 lawmakers who are elected for two years. The Senate has 100 members - 2 members from each state, who serve six years. The President together with his Vice President is chosen every 4 years. There are two main political parties in the USA - The Democratic Party and The Republican Party.
Capital of the USA
Washington D.C. has the 10th largest population in the country (3.4 million). There are the most important buildings in the USA - the White House - residence of the American President, the Capitol - the seat of the Congress, the Pentagon - the center of military forces. There are no factories and industry in Washington and that is why the city seems so clean and nice.
On the western coast the most well known places are Los Angeles and San Francisco. Los Angeles is the second largest. Here we can find the famous film center Hollywood. LA is also the center of crime. The biggest zoo in the world is in San Diego. Florida is mainly a tourist area with loud beaches in Miami. Florida also has Disney World and Epcot Center.
26. květen 2008