Abraham Lincoln was born on 12th February 1809 in Hodgenvill in Kentucky. His father was farmer and worker. His mother Nancy died, when he was nine. But his father married Sarah Bush again. Abraham didn´t go to school very often, because he has to help on a farm.He learned mainly from books, which he read. He started a new life, when he came to a businessman. This man opened a shop and young Lincoln worked as a shop assistant. In his free time he read books and citiziens of New Salem consired him as a clever man. When the shopkeeper closed the shop, Lincoln got to the chamber of state Illinois. There he was to 1840. In that time, he studied law and in 1837 he and J.T. Stuart established an advocate company. Then he married Mary Todd. They had four children, but only one survived.
In 1846 he became the congressman of USA. His policy was again slavery and against the war with Mexico. Mainly for the second reason, he wasn´t elected again.
He came back to policy in 1858. He became famous mainly of his speaking fights with demokrat Douglas. The power of republicans grew by 1860 and Lincoln was elected the prezident of USA in 1860.
But Southern states were afraid of cancelling the slavery. Therefore South Carolina in head, Georgie, Loisiana and Texas left Union and associated in Confederate States of America. Lincoln tried to prevent war, but on 12th.April 1861 was bombed fortress near Charleston. The war started.
Arkansas, Virginia, Tennessee and South Carolina joined the state of Confederation. In head of army of Confederation was General Lee. In head of union army changed many officers, but general Grant was the best. At the beginning of war Union lost many battles, because majority of officers went on a side of Confederation. Reversal of war became in 1863 at Gettysburg. From that time, Confederation just defended themselves and on 9th.April 1865 General Lee had to capitulate at Appomattox Courthouse. Confederation officially capitulated two days later. 600 000 soldiers died in civil war.
A bill was passed before war, which ment freedom for black slaves on area, which was under Union. Lincoln became the prezident of USA for the second time in 1865.
He planed to restore and to creat cabinets in South states. He always wanted just unity. It was his priority.
But on 14th.April 1865 he was schot twice in head in Ford Theater. The shooter was actor John Wilkes Booth. It was planed by him and nine other men, who sympathized with South. Secretary was assassined in hospital too, but he survived.
John Wilkes Booth was cautght and shot. The next day Lincoln died. Corpse of Lincoln was exhibited in white White House and Capitol. Then he was transfered to Springfield, where he was buried at cemetery Oak Ridge on 4th.Mai 1865. Lincoln was so important, that his birthday is observed as a state feast up to now.
18. červenec 2007