Australia and New Zealand (Austrálie a Nový Zéland)

Australia is located in south-east Asia. The Indian Ocean is west and south, the Pacific (Coral and Tasman Seas is east. Tasmania lies south. Nearest is Indonesia, Papua New Guinea on north, Solomon’s, Fiji and New Zealand are on east. Australia is and island continent.

The Great Dividing Range along the Eastern coast, (the Australian Alps) has the highest Australian mountain Mt. Kosciusko which is 2 228 meter high. Others mountains are Great sandy and Great Victoria Deserts. The north-western part of Western Australia and Northern Territories are arid and hot. The North-East has heavy rainfalls and Cape York Peninsula has jungles.

The largest rivers are The Murray, which flows from New South Wales to the Indian Ocean and the Darling. There are 3 big lakes here: Lake Eyre, Lake Torrens and Lake Gairdner.

The climate varies form warm to subtropical. The continent is in the southern hemisphere which means that Australia has summer when we have winter and vice versa. There are tropical forests, savanna or grassland.

The animals of Australia are numerous and some of them, like the kangaroo (it is a national emblem), koala, bear (it sleep a great deal (značnou část) in the day and eat about one kilogram eucalyptus leaves a day), dingo (it was broad to Australia by aborigines or Mayan peoples(, platypus (it is a furred (chlupatý) egg-laying mammal, it has a duck-bill a flat (placatý) fail and webbed feet), Tasmanian devil, wombat, kookaburra (it is the worlds largest kingfisher (ledňáček)), barking and frilled lizards cannot be found elsewhere. Sheep and rabbits were brought from England.

The population of Australia is about 16 000 000. The density is one of the lowest in the world - only 2 people to 1 square kilometre. Around 85 per cent people live in urban areas mainly along the south-east coast. Majority of the inhabitants are of British origin and other are European ethnic groups. Official language is English.

Now I would like to tell you something about the Australian history. The coast explored Captain James Cook in 1770. It become a British colony. The Commonwealth was proclaimed in 1901. About 3 million Europeans had entered Australia since 1945.

Main industries are iron, steel, textiles, electrical equipment, chemicals, car aircraft, ship and machinery. Australia belongs to the top exporters of beef, lamb, wool and wheat. Natural riches contain mainly bauxite, coal, copper, iron, lead, nickel, silver and tin. Currency used in Australia is Australian Dollar.

The official title is The Commonwealth of Australia and it is a British dominion. It has a democratic, federal system and the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II represented by the governor-general. The head of government is the Prime Minister.

The Commonwealth of Australia consists of 6 states and 2 territories: New South Wales (capital Sydney), Victoria (capital Melbourne), Queensland (Brisbane), South Australia (Adelaide), Western Australia (Perth) Tasmania (Hobart). The Australian Capital is Canberra.

The Federal Parliament has its seat in Canberra and is divided into the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Australia is a member of the following important international organisations: UN, OECD and Commonwealth.

The Australian national flag consists of the British Flag symbol and a larger blue field in which 5 stars are arranged in the form of the Southern Cross constellation. The large white star under the British Union Jack symbolises 6 Australian states an 1 territory.

Canberra is the capital of Australia since 1997. It is also the seat of the Australian parliament. Thanks to its natural scenery and architecture Canberra is sometimes said to be one of the most beautiful capitals in the world.

Sydney is the largest city in Australia. It has ideal natural conditions. Among important places there is for example Opera house with its fascinating roof construction, skyscrapers, hotels, offices and restaurants. There are also many parks and botanical gardens in Sydney.

Melbourne is the capital of the state of Victoria and the second largest city in the Australia. Now it is a modern city with a well developed industry. You can see there a lot of modern skyscrapers, parks and botanical gardens.

 

New Zealand consists of two large islands (North and South Island) in south-west Pacific Ocean. Nearest are Australia on the west, Fiji, Tonga on north. Each of the two main islands is mainly hilly and mountainous. The east coast consists of fertile plains, especially the large Canterbury Plains on South Island. A volcanic plateau is in the centre of North Island.

Population is about 3 200 000. 85 per cent of inhabitants are European origin and the rest are Polynesian. Officially language is English, but some people still speak Maori.

The Maoris, a Polynesian group form the eastern Pacific, reached New Zealand before and during the 14th century. The first European was a Dutch navigator Abel Tasman, but Maoris refused him to land. Captain James Cook explored the coasts in 1770. British sovereignty was proclaimed in 1840 and the colony became a dominion in 19+07. Now it is and independent member of the Commonwealth.

Wellington is New Zealand capital and it is surrounded by mountains from some of whitish them is a magnificent view over the city. There is the good quarters of the parliament politically commercially and geographically Wellington is the most important city in the country.

Auckland is the largest city in NZ there are many modern shopping centres with a lot of cafeterias and restaurants. relaxation ca be found in many parks.

Christchurch is the 5th largest city which is often said to have the most English character outside of England.

Rotorua – it is a place visited by almost every tourist it is a famous thermal area with gassers of boiling water. You can also see ho water lake and ho mud it is dangerous to have the marked paths, because there is the risk of falling into hot mud.

Hodnocení referátu Australia and New Zealand (Austrálie a Nový Zéland)

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  15. prosinec 2007
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