Crimes are usually classified as treason (legal term for various acts of disloyalty), felony (any grave crime), or misdemeanor (a minor crime). In general, a misdemeanor is an offense for which a punishment other than death or imprisonment (uvěznění) in the state prison is prescribed by law. Crimes are sometimes divided according to their nature into crimes mala in se and crimes mala prohibita. Crimes mala in se comprises those acts that are thought to be immoral or wrong in themselves, or naturally evil, such as murder, rape, arson (žhářství), burglary, larceny (krádež), and the like. Crimes mala prohibita embraces those acts that are not naturally evil but are prohibited by statute because they infringe on the rights of others. For example acts in restraint of trade that have been made by criminal.
A murder, the crime of unlawfully killing a person, is the most horrible crime. It is criminal homicide (zabití), usually distinguished from manslaughter (zabití) by the element of malice (zlomislnost) aforethought. Murder in the first degree is generally calculated act of slaying committed with malice aforethought, often requiring aggravated (ponížení) circumstances (okolnosti) such as extreme brutality. It receives the severest penalty, often life imprisonment or capital punishment.
Robbery is taking property from a person against his or her will by threatening or committing force or violence. There is no robbery unless force or fear is used to overcome resistance. Sometimes a robber uses a hostage. A hostage is a person taken by force to secure the taker’s demands.
Other naturally evil crimes are rape and arson. Rape is the crime of sexual intercourse without the consent of the victim, often through force or threat of violence. In many cases, the establishment of guilt becomes difficult, particularly in cases where the victim displays no physical evidence of violence, but only one testimony against the other. Rape has been known to cause profound psychological trauma among victims. Arson is the malicious and wilful burning of the buildings, structures or vehicles of another. There are several degrees of arson, for example arson committed at night is considered more serious than arson committed in the daytime.
A burglary is the breaking and entering a house of another at night with the intent to commit a felony. and a larceny is the unlawful taking and carrying away of the property of another.