The style which arose in France in 12th century.The word gothic was first used by the italian critics of the rainassance to denote the style which they considered barbarous.
Gothic is based on spirituality and verticalism.. It uses quite new elements to reach light impress. It is the architecture of pointed arch ( lomený oblouk), Rib vault, The flying buttress, walls reduced to a minimum by spacious arcades, Gallery or triforium and by spacious Clerestory Windows.( bazilikální osvětlení). They act together to represend a systém of sceletal structure with active, slender, resilient members(články) and membrane thin infilling or no infilling at all. The beauty of pinted arch is in the fact , that he provide us to build higher buildings than before.It is the idea of two segments fited together.Whole building is virtualy only a stone frame decorated with stained glass, similary to a greenhouse.
Some of theese elements were already used in Romanesque( Durham). Everything, that was heavy, earthly or humdrum was eliminated.The early completely Gothic building is St Dennis Abbey – 1140. Other are : Notre – Dame,
This miraculous buildings seemed to proclaim the glories of heaven.- great cathedrals had deep impresed on those, who had only knownthe heavy and grim structures.
In the 13th century, artists went even further in their attempts to make the stone come to life.They portraist actusl kings, knights.But sometimes they did them many years after thier dead after sketches, so the result is not vrey persuasive. They worked for church. The independent statues doesnt exist. The most common themes were from the Bible.We see, how important was to the artists to schow us the feelings of his figures. It was more important for them than right proportions.
Works : the Death of the Virgin, which shows twelwe apostoles , st Magdalene and Christ surround her bed. Important role has also rich shirring drapery.
- Ekkehart and Uta
The work is known with ignoring the proportions in the affort to express the spirituality and old motifs.But they were aware about right proportions, we can consider it on the example of one painting, where an elephant is realizated in right heigh to a person next it.
Gothic colours are gold, blue, yellow.
- The entombment of the christ
pattern – vzor
bishop´s throne – biskupský stolec
underneath – vespod
solemny – slavnostní
firmly – pevně
brazen serpent – mosazná spirála
priest – kněz
imbued – napustit
dignity – hodnost
sacraments – svátost
chalice – pohár
censer – kadelnice
pondered – uvažovat
flank – bok
porches – vchod
hosts – hostitel