Human body is composed from the same organs as body of a mammal. But human being differs from other mammals by having intellect, having ability to think and speak. Finally, he is able to work and invent new things of all qualities. He lives social life and he should be and feel equal to all other human beings without any national, religious or racial prejudice.
Human body consists of bones, muscles and organs. All three parts are made from cells.
There’s over 5 litres of blood circulating in our body, composed from blood-corpusles (red and white ones), thrombocytes and blood plasma. „The pump“, which helps the circulation is our heart. It oxidates our blood and sends it all around our body via artheries. Afterwards it goes back to the heart, without any oxygene, via vains.
Our heart is supplied with oxygene by our lungs via small blood circulation.
We’ve got bodes to give us shape and support the body, to protect and contain the most important organs of the body and to help us move about.
Bones are made from living tissue, coposed of special cells. Bone-making (ossification) is a gradual process. Adults have 207 bones.
The basic part of sceleton of sceleton is the spine. It carries the weight of the body and protects the delicate spinal cord. The skull shelters the brain while the ribs protect the heart and lungs.
Bones are fit together at the joints and are held firm by ligaments.
No part of our body is completely insensitive to pain because nerves are to be found in every part of our human body.
The nervous system has two 2 parts:
1. the pheripheral system, which is in direct contact with the things that can cause us pleasure or pain.
2. central system consists of brain and spinal cord. It’s in our central nerval system that all our sesation and reactions are finally registered.
directs and coordinates ou movements and reflexes, registers sensations and is the supreme nervous organ, by which man acquires knowledge and the power to use and addspt it. It shapes our personalities, and without it we would be more helpless than the tiniest human baby.
Our body is covered with skin. It protects body form cold and is important for the water circulation on our body, too. It’s also important for the contact of the body with outside. We should take care of it by washing daily and putting on some body milk.
Human being has 5 senses: sight, smell, taste, hearing and touch
Of course we can exist without them, but our life would be much more difficult then. Sight helps us moving around and see people we meet; smell gives us an idea of every thing’s quality; taste makes us enjoy our meal even more so and warns us when the thing we eat may make us sick; hearing gives sense to speaking and touch helps us to look out for dangerous things.
Blind people (the ones that cannot see) often walk with a stick or a dog beside. Their hearing and touch is better than usually. Deaf people often cannot speak because they cannot control what they say.
They perform four functions, of which the most obvious is the ejection of waste materials from the body.
They are bean-shaped and lie just above the waist, one on each side of the spine.
A human being can survive without kidneys for only 2-3 weeks.
It’s important for our metabolism and it’s the largest gland in our body. It lies on the right side under the middroff, protected by ribs. It also has other functions, as for example supplying our body with vitamines, destroying dangerous waste, producing gall or hormones…
PARTS OF THE BODY: body, head, nec, shoulders, arm, upper arm, elbow, forearm, hand, finger, thumb, chest, stomach, hips, bottom, leg, thigh, knee, shin, calf, foot, ankle, heel, toe, big toe
THE HEAD: forehead, eyebrow, eyelid, eyelashes, cornes, pupil, iris, cheek, nose, nostril, mouth, teeth, molar, lip, tongue, chin, ear, jaw
THE HAND: wrist, palm, finger, nail, little finger, ring finger, middle finger, index finger, thumb
ORGANS: heart, lung, kidney, gall bladder, intestine (large and small), appendix, urinary bladder, liver, ovary, muscles Achilles tendon, nerves, brain
SKELETON: bone, joint, spine, ankle, rib, pelvis, skull, shinbone, cranium
HEALTH AND DISESASES
Recenrt medical science, by help of desinfection, desinsection and deratization, managed to suppress many dangerous and fast-spreading diseases as plague or cholera. By vaccination other ones like small-pox or infantile paralysis were suppressed. Furthermore, with help of antibiothics, it’s possible to cure diseases which a few decades ago were mortal or serious health problems remained after them. These are, for example, pneumonia, scarlet fever or boreliosis.
Antibiothics should be always used strictly according to the instructions of our doctor. Otherwise the disease may become resistant to the medicine as we can see on malary or TBC recently.
The medical research also tries to find a successful medicine to cancer and other incurable diseases
DISEASES: diabetes, pneumonia, influenza, hernia, kidney stones, blood poisoning, asthma, ulcer, encephalitis, bronchitis, cancer, AIDS, sunstroke, tumor, high blood pressure, cramp, injury, concussion, rash, otitis, stroke
INFECTIONS: tonsillitis, TBC, typhoid, jaundice, chicken pox, diarrhoea, mumps. Measles, diphteria
SYMPTOMS: bleeding, coughing, tiredness, headache, stomach ache, sore throat, feeling faint, dizzy, tired, sick throwing up, have no apetite, blisters
HEALING: be on diet, have an operation, to sleep, relax, take medicine, put on a hot compress, take the temprature, gurgle, vaccinate, injection
TOUGHTEN OUR BODY
We should gain vitamines daily. Here are some that are most neccessary for our health:
vitamine source importance
A Vegetables (salad, carrots, tomates, spinash…), fruits (blackberries, blueberries..) For healthy skin, eyes and glands
B Legumes, cereals, nuts, meat (esp. pork) For a good nerve system
B12 Kidneys and liver Production of red corpusles
C Fresh vegetable and fruit Resistance from diseases
D Butter, fish fat, solar radiation Prevents from rickets
E cereals Influences, pregnancy and sexual glands
It’s neccessary to get as much energy as we burn during our daily routine. If we don’t, we lose on weight. Extreme diets may cause lots of problems. That’s why we should eat balanced food, including enough vitamines, sacharides, proteins and fats.
We should avoid eating too much fatty and sweet food. It’s not good for our stomach, neither figure and teeth. It’s better to eat steamed, boiled or grilled meat than friend one and we should prefer poultry and fish or sea-food. It’s good to eat a bit of all.
It’s also better to eat dark bread, as it contains more vitamines and is better for our digestive system.
We should also drink enough – about 3 litres a day. The best drinks for us are spring or mineral water, tea, fresh-pressed juice and milk. Alcohol, coffee and sweetened drinks ahould be drank minimally. In addition, drinks containing caffeine are not considered drinks because they dry up our organism.