The USA is a federal republic of 50 states, including the north state of Alaska and the island of Hawaii in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The states are bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. The national capital is Washington.
The total area of the USA is nearly 3,68 million square miles (9,5 mil. square kilometres), making it the fourth largest county after Russia, Canada and China. Although the total population of the USA is large, its overall population density is relatively low.
The first inhabitants were the aboriginal peoples, the ancestors of today’s American Indians. The original 13 British colonies became the USA in 1776. In 1607 Jamestown became first permanent British settlement in North America and the foundation of the Virginia colony.
By the modele of the eighteenth century England aroused the growing resement of the colonist. Britain increased its military presence and The Boston Tea Party started the struggle for Independence of the thirteen colonies. The American patriots were led by Georgie Washington. The Sekond Continental Congress, acting for the 13 colonies, declared independence on July 4, 1776, and created Articles of Confederation to govern the new nation. Victory over the British came in 1783, and the resulting Treaty of Paris established U.S. boundaries.
A new constitution was created in 1787, ratified in 1788, and took effect in 1789. Georgie Washington became the first president. Under the new Constitution, the country began to grow almost immediately.
In 1861 the Civil War broke out. The war was won by the North in 1865 and the result was the abolition of slaveny, the establishment of citizenship for former slaves, and the institution of universal adult male suffrage.
The numer of European immigrants reached 13,000,000 between years 1900 and 1914. The prosperity of the decade that followed World War 1 came to a sudden and in 1929 when the stocks market crashed and the Great Depression began. The Japanese attack on Pearl Barbor brought the United States into Word War II on the side of Britain and the Soviet Union against the fascist nations of Germany, Japan and Italy.
The Allied victory in 1945 left the US leader of the Western world. The 40-year-long rivalry with the Soviet Union became known as the Cold War. In 1949 the US formel the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in an effort to counter the Soviet military presence in eastern Europe, and a Societ-inspired attack on South Korea involted the US in the Korean War (1950-53), which ended in stalemate. The US became involted in the Vietnam War (1955-75). The prolonged and unsuccessful American war ended in the withdrawal of the US from the conflict in 1973. The end of Američan involvement in the Vietnam War was accompainied by the Watergate scandal, which forced the resignation of President Richard M.Nixon in 1974. The Cold War ended with the breakup of the Societ Union in 1991.