Turning points in the history of the world


The European discovery of the new world. While other cultures and explorers had found the new world previously, Columbus capitalized on his discovery by better documentation, enslavement of the native populations and opening the new world to European colonization.

1648 – Peace of Westphalia

The End of Thirty years’ war Peace of Westphalia, European settlements of 1648, which brought to an end the Eighty Years’ War between Spain and the Dutch and the German phase of the Thirty Years’ War. The peace was negotiated in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück.

1918 – The End of the First World War

Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires, Russian Civil War and foundation of the Soviet Union, Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East, Establishment of the League of Nations.


The year 1968 remains one of the most tumultuous single years in history, marked by historic achievements, shocking assassinations, a much-hated war and a spirit of rebellion that swept through countries all over the world. Occurring at the dawn of the television age, the historic events of 1968 also played out on TV screens across the country, bringing them home in a way that had never been possible before.


The end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, Autumn of Nations, Unviolently (apart Romanian), Subsequent dissolution of Sowiet Union, Warsaw Pact, Eastern Block, Spreading of West culture.


Islamic fundamentalist terrorists hijack four U.S. airliners and crash them into the Pentagon and the World Trade Centre in NY City. The impact left a gaping, burning hole near the 80th floor of the skyscraper, instantly killing hundreds of people and trapping hundreds more in higher floors. As the evacuation of the tower got underway, television cameras broadcasted live images of what initially appeared to be a freak accident. Then, after the first plane hit, a second Boeing appeared out of the sky and sliced into the south tower near the 60th floor. The attackers were Islamic terrorists from Saudi Arabia and several other Arab nations. Reportedly financed by the al-Qaeda terrorist organization. They were allegedly acting in retaliation for America’s support of Israel, its involvement in the Persian Gulf War and its continued military presence in the Middle East. As millions watched the events unfolding in NY, American Airlines Flight circled over downtown Washington, D.C., before crashing into the west side of the Pentagon. Jet fuel from the Boeing caused a devastating inferno that led to the structural collapse of a portion of the giant concrete building, which is the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense. All told, 125 military personnel and civilians were killed in the Pentagon, along with all 64 people aboard the airliner.

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