The first inhabitants were the Celts. In A. D. 43 the Romans began an invasion which resulted in the Roman occupation of Britain. The next inhabitants were anglo-Saxon in the 5th century. At the beginning of the 9th century the Danes and the Norsemen attacked England.
The UK has a population of about 57 million inhabitants. The UK covers an area of about 245 thousand square kilometre. The prime meridian of 0° passes through the old observatory at Greenwich. Great Britain is situated in the British Isles. It consists of three parts: England, Wales and Scotland. The British Isles is the general name for the major island, Ireland, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, The Shetlands and many others (Isle of Man, Isle of Wight). The British Isles are situated in the northest of the Atlantic Ocean. From Europe they are divided by the English Channel. The UK consists of British Isles and Ireland. The islands are separated by the Irish Sea.
The island of The GB can be divided into the lowland area and highland area. The highest mountanis is Ben Nevis, it measures 1.343 m. Scotland is the most mountainous area of The GB. Lowlands occupy the main part of the major island´s southern half. Lowlands are used for production of agricultural crops. Woodlands occupy about 8 % of the surface.
The longest river is the Thames(flows into the North Sea) in England, and The Clyde in Scotland. The biggest river is the Severn (flows into the Bristol Bay).
The greates number of lakes can be found in Nothern Scotland and in the Lake District. The Lake Windermere is visited by many tourists. The largest lakes are in Nothern Ireland: Lough Neagh, Lough Erne. The most famous lakes are Loch Ness and Loch Lomond in Scotland. Lakes aren´t used for transport or production of electricity, but for amusement – they are a big tourist attraction.
The Great Britain has a temperate and equable climate. Rain is fairly common throughout the year. The climate of the GB is determined by the circulation of air masses.
The GB is rich in minerals. In the GB, there are mined black coal (Wales), sand, limestone, iron ore, salt, sandstone. Oil and natural gas are taken from the North Sea.
The GB is industrial country. The UK exports a great part of its industrial production – machines, means of transport and chemicals. The UK is traditionally economically connected with the Commonwealth.
In the UK, there are grown wheat, barley, oats, hay, potatoes, sugar beets, flax and there are breeded cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, horse.
The GB is is a constitutional monarchy. In the UK, there are practised parliamentary demokracy. The Parliament is consists of 2 houses – The House of Lords, and The House of Commons. The capital is London. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth the Second – she reigns, but doesn´t rule. The seat of monarchy is in the GB. Queen is head of state in the other member nations of the Commonwealth.
Statford-upon-Avon – is the birthplace of W. Shakespeare. The top attraction is the house in Henley Street where Shakespeare was born.
Oxford is the seat of the oldest English university
Stonehenge is a megalithic monument dating from about 2,800 B.C. (before Christ). The ruins consist of two stone circles and two horseshoes.
Liverpool is one of the largest cities in England. It is an important port and the city of the Beatles and a well-known Steeplechase for horse racing.
The national authem is called „God save the Queen“ or „God save King“
2. červenec 2007