Canada occupies the whole of the northern part of North America (except Alaska) and many islands (e.g. Baffin Island, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island …). Canada is as large as Europe – it is the second largest country in the world. It neighbours with the USA. The border with the US is the longest undefended border in the world.
The Great Lakes Region is the largest area of fresh water in the world. There are famous Niagara Falls between Lake Erie and Ontario. We can also find other big lakes in Canada e.g. Great Bear Lake of Great Slave Lake.
The highest mountains in the country are the Rocky Mountains. The highest mountain is Mt. Logan. The longest river is the Mackenzie, other big rivers are the Yukon, the Columbia and the River St. Lawrence.
The climate varies from Arctic climate in (to) the north to moderate climate in (to) the east and west. The north of the country near the Arctic is a cold tundra. It is covered by moss lichen and low bushes. The climate there is very cold, the summers are short. Animals like deer and polar bear live there. The area is thinly inhabited mostly by the Inuit(s) = Eskimos. They use kayaks, snowshoes, and sleds pulled by dogs. They live mostly on meat and fish, hunting whale, moose and bear. Life is hard in arctic and subarctic regions. The winters are sunless and long.

Canada’s population is 25 612 000 inhabitants (1986). The density is one of the lowest in the world because the north is wild, covered by ice and snow. Most Canadians live near the southern border. People are of British origin, of French origin, the Inuit(s) live especially to the north and there are some ethnic minorities there.
The French live mostly in Quebec. The name Canada comes from the original inhabitants (“kanata” means “village”).

The first Europeans to come were the Vikings. Giovanni Caboto (=John Cabot) and Jack Cartier explored Canada.

Government type
Queen Elizabeth II (the second) is the head of state but the leading figure in political life is the Prime Minister. The country is divided into 10 provinces and 2 territories (=the Yukon and Northwest territories. In 1999 Northern Territories split into 2 parts. Nunavut, a homeland for the Inuit(s), new lines and new names in native languages appeared on the map of Canada’s north). The Canadian anthem is called “Oh, Canada”. A maple leaf is used as Canada’s national symbol.

National Economy
Valid currency is Canadian dollar. Canada has mainly coal, metal, oil and gas. machine building, chemical industry, iron and steel industries are highly developed. Ships are built in Canada, furniture and paper productions are essential (there are large forests). Agricultural items are as follows: wheat, tobacco, fruit, vegetables, oats.

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