Canada occupies the whole of the northern part of North America (except Alaska) and many islands. Canada is made up of ten provinces and three territories. The largest province is Quebec. On Canada's southern border lies the USA and on the north is the Arctic Ocean. Canada covers area of about 10 mil km2. Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia.
Canada was discovered twice, first by the Vikings and then by Europeans in the 15th century. The first Europeans came from France in the year 1605 and two years later from England. The enmity between French and English inhabitants culminated in the end of the seventeen century. The situation was solved in the war from 1756 to 1763. The British army occupied Quebec and France had to give up its colonies in Canada. In spite of the British victory, the French language and culture were developed and in the year 1774 they published the law, which acknowledged the civil rights for the French. Throughout the nineteen century the territory was extended and also the population was doubled.
Now the population of Canada is more then 26 million people. Major part of Canadians is concentrated near the border with USA. Canada is bilingual country. 45% of the Canadians are of British origin, 29% of French origin, most of french lives in the Quebec and 23% have their origins in the other European countries There also live the original inhabitants – Indians and Eskimos. The majority of the population is Christian, but they are divided into Protestants 3O% and Roman Catholics 45%. Canadians celebrate 1st July as the „Canada day“, and they are also celebrating the thanks giving day.
Canada is famous for its diverse and beautiful scenery which is coverd by in lakes and forests. Visitors are eager to see famous Niagara Falls. They are located between the Lake Ontario and the Lake Erie.The canadian fall is called The Horseshoe Fall and it´s the wilder part of Niagara Falls. Canada has also high mountain ranges, such as the Rocky Mountains and the Mackenzie Mountains, which occupies the west seashore. The highest mountain is Mt. Logan (5961 m). There are also a national parks (Jasper National Park), tourists can admire the scenery or enjoy walking, climbing or skiing there. The climate is mostly continental and in the north is arctic. The longest rivers are St. Lawrence, which into the Atlantic Ocean or Mackenzie flowing into the Arctic Ocean. The typical species of canadian´s animals are:
Seal – lachtan, tuleň, Polar bear – lední medvěd, Wolf – vlk, Sea-lion – lvoun, Artic fox – polární liška, Walrus – mrož, Whales – velryby, Moose – los, Musk – pižmoň, Brennt-goose – bernežka, Beaver – bobr, Black bear – medvěd, Cod – treska, Grizzly bear – medvěd.
Canada became a British dominion in 1867. Now it’s and independent federal state and a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations, but the head of the state is still the British monarch, but the leading figure in political life is the Prime Minister. Canada has it´s own parliament, which consists of house of common, whose members are alected and the senate, whoise members a appointed. Since 1965 it has its own national flag: red and white are the national colours of canada, while the male leaf has long beebn a Canadian emblem. Other national symbols are Red-coated, broad-hatted Mountie( policie) and also the beaver due to of fur trade in establishing the Britisch and french colonies wich shaped modern Canada.
Canada’s capital is Ottawa, but the largest city is Montreal. Montreal got its name according to words “mont Royal”, which means Royal mountain. It’s the second largest French speaking city in the world (after Paris) and it has about 3 millions inhabitants. The worlds tallest structure you can find in Toronto where the canadien tower was built.
In Canada you can pay by canadien dollar and its devided into 100 cents. Canada’s economy is traditionally based on natural resources and agriculture. There are many industry centres – for example: Hamilton, Montreal or Toronto. Canada is rich in resources.They exploit coal, oil and gas, zinc, silver or uranium and also gold. Gold was discovered in 1896 in the Yucon teritorie and the great gold rush in history started. Forests cover almost half of Canada. Canadians use them for getting wood and then they make furniture or other wood products. Canada is the world’s second largest exporter of wheat, which is mainly grown on the prairies. Main industries are chemical, machine building, schip building, iron and steel. Canada belongs into G-8 countries ( 8 leading industrialized countries in the world) and the memberschift in NAFTA will certainly improve teh possibilities of the canadien economy to increase.
The education system varies from province to province and includes six to eight years of elementary schol, four of five years of seccondary school and three of four years at the university.
National sports and games
Canadas most popular sports are ice hockey, swimming, skiing, basseball, tennis. Ice hockey and the lacross are the national sports.
2. listopad 2007