Canada (Kanada)

Geography:
Canada is the second largest sountry in the world. It’s on the northern part of North America.
The biggest lakes are: Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Great Bear Lake (shared with USA), Great Slave Lake (-||-), Lake Winnipeg (-||-),...
Rivers: St. Lawrence River, Winnipeg, Saskatchevan, Columbia, Frazer, Yukon, Mackenzie, ...
Canada is divided into seven regions, each with a different landscape and climate: The Pacific Coast, The Cordillera, The Prairies, The Canadian Shield, The Great Lakes, The Atlantic Provinces and The Arctic.

History:
The first people arrives to America from Asia about 30 000 years ago.Then, about 1000 years ago, settled on the Newfoundland Icelandic Norsemen.
French and English were seeking a new route to China and India, but they found America, so they built up colonies there. In 1497 proclaimed John Cabot the land as English and in 1534 made the same French Jacques Cartier on a Gaspé promontory. Competitor’s fights come to a war and in 1763 was closed up a Treaty of Paris. Almost all French territories were given to Britain. In 1774 Britain passed the Quebec Act, which recognitioned French civil laws and guaranteed religious and linguistic freedoms.
Loyalists, apart of USA people, came, after the independence of the USA, to Canada, because they wanted toremain faithful to the British Crown.
In 1791 were created Upper and Lower Canada, in the 1830s Province of Canada and 1.July 1867 Dominion of Canada. In 1931 Canada’s constitution autonomy from Britain was confirmed with passing of the statue of Westminster.
Canada’s economy has since World War II continued to expand.

Provinces and territories:
Nowadays it’s 10 provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec and Saskatchewan) and 2 territories (Northwest Trritories and Yucon Territory) there.

Political system:
Canada is a constitution monarchy, a federal state and parliamentary democracy with up two official languages and two systems of law: civil and common.In 1982 was Charter of Rights and Freedoms entrenched in the Canadian Constitution.
The Canadian Parliament is composed of the Qeen (represented by the Governor General), the Senate (=Upper House) and the House of Commons. Under the direction of Prime minister is the Cabinet, the executive authority.
Laws are interpreted and applied by the courts. The general court of appeal is estabilished by Parliament.

Economy:
Canada belongs to he Group of Seven leading industrialized countries (G-7 countries).
There are rich sources of raw materials: uranium, zinc, nickel, aluminium, natural gas,...It produces sulphur, paper,...There is also agriculture: wheat etc.
It’s the eight largest trading nation. Services industries employ about two-thirds of the Canadian work force.The growing role of knowledge-based activity has put pressure on industry and the whole society in promoting further education.
Over the years 1970 to 1990, Canada has had the fastest rate of job creation in G-7 economies. Canada is also the member of NAFTA.

System of Education:
Canada’s education comprises 10 provincial and 2 territorial systems.
Public education is co-educational and free up to secondary school.School attendance is compulsory for children from 6/7 until 15/16.Tuition is payed not till for post-secondary education. In some provincies there are kindergarten, which are attending children before elementary grades. Than there is a high school.
For education the government present 8% of gross domestic product. Education has for responsibility The provincial departments of education and school boards or commissions.

Festivals:
in Canada there are some interesting festivals: Fredericton river jubilee, Miramichi folk song festival, Shediac lobster festival, Annual provincial fisheries festival, Festival of spring.

Sports:
For Canada is sport very important. Most important sports are these: curling (it’s related to shuffle board), fishing, football (100% Canadian rules), golf, hockey (NHL is composed from 7 Canadian teams), horse racing, lacrosse (officially Canada’s national sport), skiing (finest skiing areas), snowmobiling (mainly for recreation, major snowmobiling region is Ontario) and hunting (Canada is hunter’s paradise).

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