The original inhabitants of Canada were Indians and Eskimos (Inuits). Canada was discovered by The Vikings. Canada is from Indian word „kannata“. The first of the discoverers were John Cabot (in the 15th century, the English) and Jacques Cartier(in the 16th century, the French). The first contact between the natives and Europeans was about 1,000 years ago. Canada was a French colony and was called New France.Then Canada was an English colony. In 1931 Canada became independent.
Canada is situated among the Atlantic, the Artic and The Pacific Oceans. Canada is the larger part of the North American Continent. The costs of Canada are surrounded by many islands. The most important islands are Newfoundland and Vancouver.
In Canada, there are highlands (The Cordillera Mountain = The Rocky Mountains, The Appalachian Mountains, The St. Elias Mountains). The highest peak is Mount Logan (6050 m) and lowlands (The Artic Lowland – around the Hudson´s Bay) and glacial plains, wetlands, marshlands.
The symbol of Canada are lakes – The Lake Superior, The Lake Huron, The Lake Erie, The Lake Ontario – there are shared with the USA. (The Lake Winnipeg, The Athabasca, The Great Slave Lake, The Great Bear Lake). The most important rivers are The Mackenzie, The Colombia, The Yukon, The Fraser, The Saint Lawrence River and the Niagara. The rivers are used for production of electricity and transport. On the Saint Lawrence River are beautiful waterfalls.
Climate is quite severe. Summer is quite cold. Almost the country is covered with snow for half the year.
Canada is enormously rich in mineral resources. There are mined gold, ores, oil, natural gas. Canada occupies the first place in the world in the mining of uranium, zinc.
Industry is very developed. Industry include petrochemical industry, paper making, food industry. Canada belongs to the G-7 countries.
There are grown tobacco, fruits, vegetables, oats. There is grown wheat too, Canada exports wheat.
Most people live in the southern part of Canada. Canada has about 27 milion inhabitants. The society is very varied and very tolerant. The population desity is very low. More than 75 % of the total population live in cities. Among the most largest cities are Montreal – french speaking, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary – french speaking, Quebec.
Canada is a dominion of United Kingdom. Canada is a constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy, member of Commonwealth and federal state which consists of 10 provinces (Quebec, New Foundland, British Columbia) and 2 territories – Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories. The official head of state is the British Queen, Elizabet II. represented by the Governor General. The capital is Ottawa. There are 2 official languages – French and English. The national symbol is the maple leaf.
30. červenec 2007