Education and school systems

The state educational school system in England and Wales:

- under 5 years NURSERY
- 5-7 years INFANT
- 7-11 years JUNIOR
- 11-16 years SENNIOR

All children between 5 and 16 must reiceve a full-time obligatory education. Comprehensive education caters for children of all abilities.
At secondary level most of the pupils can go to comprehensive or grammar schools. Grammar schools are selective between the age of 11 and 18 or 19 and offer mainly academic education, ebtrance is by examinations.
8 per cent of children attend public schools (independent or private like Eton, Harrow or others). These schools are quite expensive, but many offer scholarships to gifted children. It is usual to attend preparatory before entering, which is paid.
The National Curriculum is based on 3 subjects of English, mathematics and science together with 7 other fiundation subjects. There are 4 key stages:
- Key Stage 1 – up to age 7 (infants)
- Key Stage 2 – 7 to 11 (juniors)
- Key Stage 3 – 11 to 14 (pre-GCSE)
- Key Stage 4 – 14 to 16 (preparation for GCSE)

General Certificate os Secondary Education (GCSE) is a principal examination at the age of 16. The compulsury subjects are English, Science and Maths
The A-Level exam is held in the age of 18 and it’s a standard exam for entrance to higher education courses
There is new exam called Advanced Supplementary (AS) which enables the last-formers to increase the number of subject studied.
In Scotland the secondary school are called „public“ which means thatthey are opened to everyone

Higher education is available at the universities and institutions. Some are wholly concerned with teacher training.
Britain has 47 universities, incl. Open University, which provides part-time fee-paid courses. The most famous and the oldest ones are Oxford and Cambridge (12th and 13th cetury). From the Scottish ones there are Edinburgh, Aberdeen or Glasgow.(14th and 15th centuries). The others were founded in 19th or 20th centuries.
In 1858 the University of Cambridge esablished UCLES (the Univesrty of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate), which also was extended into foreign countries. Today UCLES EFL exams are recognized world wide. In CZ they are promoted by the British Council.
Full-time university first degree courses usually last three or four years (except veterinary and medical ones that require 5 years). The main qualification are Bachelor of Arts (B. A.), Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) etc.It is quite usual for students to get a practical experience. The degrees are designated First Class, Second Class (Upper or Lower) and Third Class and the classes are depedant on the results achieved. Some students continue to study for Masters degrees (M. A., M. Sc., M. Phil.) which require two more years of full-time study. A minority go further to „PhD“.

Further education is for people over 16 taking courses up to GCE A level standard. Courses are run by colleges of further education. Many of the students attend the school part-time.

The educational system in the USA:

In the most states the education is compulsury from the age of 6 to 16. The atmosphere at elementary schools is usually friendly.

Full secondary education up to the age of 18 is available for everyone. The schools are comprehensive called high schools. Pupils can choose all kinds of subjects. State schools prevail; not many pupils attend private schools.

Higher education is extremely competitive and selective. There are two tests which are used by universities as standards for comparsion: the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT, measures aptitudes in verbal and mathematical fields) and American College Testing program (ACT, measures English, mathematical and scientifical skills). Only a small number of applicants are admitted. Completing the university studies is also very difficult.

Harvard (Cambridge, MA), Yale and Princeton are the most prestigious universities in Eastern United States. On the West Coast, the University of California at Berkeley and the University of California in LA and Stanford University in Palo Alto, CA. The oldest isHarvard, founded in 1636.

The educational system of the Czech Republic:

The childen of busy parents‘ are sent to nurseries.

As kids grow up, they may attend kindergartens, where they learn by playing. They start to learn how to count, read the numbers and letters, draw, play… After the lunch they usually have some rest and then they go for a walk.

At the age of 6 they start elementary schools, where they spend next 9 years before they have to choose which secondary school will they go to. They can also apply for the secondary high school at the age of 13, two years before they would finish the elementary school. Their secondary education is two years longer.

At the age of 18 or 19 the youngsters have to pass their A Levels at the Secondary high schools or get their diploma at the comprehensive high schools. The ones who pass A leves are allowed to apply for a higher education.

The higher education lasts from 3 to 6 years. The first degree possible to take is Bachelor, after some more years of study it continues with Ingeneer and Doctor degrees.

The best known universities in our country are the KARLOVA UNIVERZITA in Prague, founded in 1484 by the King Charles IV and is the oldest university in Central Europe; the MASARYKOVA UNIVERZITA in Brno and PALACKEHO UNIVERZITA in Olomouc.

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