Our international transport is carried (prováděn) for example by Cechofracht, Shipping and International Forwarding (zasilatelská) Corporation. Cechofracht act as agents, for foreign shipping companies and controls Czech sea going vessels (všechny lodě). The going abroad may be sent by post, rail, road, air, river and canal or sea.
Carriage (přeprava) by land, river and air. Land transport makes use of railways or road vehicles. When sending goods by rail, the consigner (zasilatel) fills in a Consignment Note (nákladní list) Which gives the description and weight, the addresses, and party (strany) paying for the carriage, and an International Consignment Note in international railway transport. In road transport the document is called Delivery (dodací) Note or Waybill. (průvodka)
River transport has not a great importance (významný) for the Czech republic, which is without direct access (přístup) to the sea. In modern time and increasing (vzrůstá) amount (suma) of goods is travelling by air. Air cargo (náklad) falls into several groups:
- merchandise urgently required – medicines, spare parts (náhradní díly)
- cargoes of perishable nature (zkázepodléhající) – fruit, flowers, vegetable
- commodities having high value (hodnotu) – jewellery, furs (kožešiny), watches
The document used in a air transport is called Air Waybill.
The formalities connected with it are much more complicated. The most important documents are the bill of Lading (konosament) and the Charter party (smlouva o pronájmu lodi). The sea transport is diveded into two main classes: Tramp shipping and liner services. (trampová a liniová). Tramp shippong is used mainly co carry such bulk (velká) cargoes as coal, ores (rudy), grain, (obilí), timber (dřevo), etc. The advantage is thet the tramp steamer (parník) can be at the port when the cargo is to be moved. Tramps have no fixed time o sailing (stanovený jízdní řád) and no fixed routes and the freight rates (dopravní sazby) are relatively low. (nízký) Liner companies provide (zajišťují) regular traffic between ports in different parts of the world /both passengers and cargoes/ (osobní i nákaladní) As a rule liners are quicker than tramp steamers. They sail according to fixed schedule, (řád) have fixed routing – the rates are quoted according to fixed tariffs.
4. prosinec 2007